Les 10 meilleures techniques de blanchiment d’argent

Les 10 meilleures techniques de blanchiment d’argent

Les activités criminelles génèrent beaucoup d’argent, la plupart du temps sous forme liquide. Cela pose un vrai problème au brigand qui veut l’utiliser ou le placer à la banque sans éveiller les soupçons. Heureusement (ou malheureusement) les méthodes de blanchiment sont diverses, efficaces, et s’adaptent à tous les désirs. Ainsi les détenteurs de cet argent sale pourront récolter le beurre, l’argent du beurre, et la crémière.

La question qui se pose alors est : comment utiliser cet argent tout en dissimulant son origine ? Les experts distinguent trois étapes. Le placement, qui consiste à placer l’argent dans un compte bancaire en masquant son origine illégale, la dispersion, qui consiste à brouiller les pistes en utilisant des transactions financières complexes afin de légitimer la possession de cet argent, et enfin l’intégration grâce à laquelle le criminel pourra investir dans les secteurs légaux sans être inquiété.

Et pour cela les criminels, mais aussi les financiers, ne manquent pas d’ingéniosité et de créativité. Voici donc les techniques de placement les plus utilisées :

1) Injecter l’argent sale dans le chiffre d’affaires d’un commerce complice

Le commerce peut être celui d’un complice, ou appartenir au criminel :  une pizzeria, une bijouterie, un casino, ou encore un hôtel. C’est parfait tant que la plupart des clients payent en liquide, et que leur nombre soit facilement falsifiable.

2) Déclarer de faux gains aux jeux

La technique la plus connue est, avec la complicité du gérant d’un casino, de perdre son argent dans le jeu, et se le faire rembourser moyennant une commission généreuse.

3) Acheter des œuvres d’art aux enchères

Un complice peut mettre une œuvre d’art aux enchères, le criminel l’achète, le commissaire priseur remet l’argent au complice. Quelques jours plus tard le criminel va voir le complice, lui remet l’œuvre, et récupère l’argent moyennant, encore une fois, une commission. Ainsi le criminel pourra dire que l’argent lui vient de la vente d’un tableau par exemple.

4) Rédiger de fausses factures

Considérons une société A contrôlée par un criminel et une société B ayant besoin de liquide. La société A adresse une facture à la société B contre une prestation de services (entièrement simulée) par exemple. La société B envoie un chèque à la société A afin de payer. La société A rembourse la B ni vu ni connu en argent liquide et va ensuite encaisser le chèque qui pourra lui permettre de justifier la rentrée d’argent.

5) Envoyer l’argent à l’étranger

Pour cela il faut passer par le bureau de change qui fera la conversion en grosses coupures puis, envoyer l’argent vers des pays moins regardant sur l’origine de l’argent.

6) Ouvrir un compte bancaire anonyme

En termes simples, cela signifie que l’individu peut utiliser toutes les fonctions bancaires (carte bancaire, dépôt, retrait, paiement) sans révéler son identité. L’individu peut recourir à cette option s’il ne veut pas que les autorités d’un pays particulier sachent qu’il est impliqué dans des transactions pas très nettes.

7) Déposer l’argent dans un paradis fiscal

Cela permet de placer en toute impunité des flux financiers gigantesques. C’est l’option préférée des groupes criminels mais aussi des politiciens, des hommes d’affaires et des célébrités.

8) Utilisation des marchés financiers

Le but est de transférer l’argent sale d’une personne X vers le compte d’une personne Y. C’est le gérant du portefeuille qui va s’en occuper. Ainsi, il va acheter 10 actions B à 500€et les revendre directement après au même prix. Ensuite, le prix des actions B ayant baissé, il achète 10 actions B à 495€et les revend juste après au même prix. Il n’y a ni perte ni gain. Ensuite, après quelques manipulations, il va attribuer l’achat des 10 actions à 495€et la vente des 10 actions à 500€à la personne X qui récupérera les 500€,puis il va attribuer l’achat des 10 actions à 500€et la vente des 10 actions à 495€ à la personne Y qui enregistrera une perte de 500€, la perte étant bien sûr fictive car la personne Y n’a pas engagé de capitaux. Le volume des transactions étant immense ce genre d’opérations passe inaperçu.

9) Le faux procès

Supposons qu’un criminel détienne deux sociétés. Une société A située dans un pays peu contraignant (paradis fiscal par exemple) et une société B située dans un pays occidental. La société A va fournir une prestation à la société B. La société B va refuser expressément de régler la facture. La société A va donc saisir la justice et la société B se verra condamnée à régler la somme. Sans le savoir la justice va jouer un rôle primordial dans le blanchiment de cet argent car elle aura donné la preuve que l’argent n’est pas sale.

10) Le prêt adossé

Cette opération implique trois acteurs : une banque européenne, le blanchisseur, et une banque dans un paradis fiscal. La banque européenne accorde un prêt d’une somme importante au blanchisseur. Si le blanchisseur ne peut s’acquitter de sa dette, le contrat stipule que c’est la banque du paradis fiscal qui va rembourser la banque européenne. Ainsi, soit le blanchisseur investit légalement et gagne assez d’argent pour rembourser le prêt, soit il se déclare inapte à rembourser et dans ce cas c’est la banque du paradis fiscal qui va rembourser la banque européenne avec l’argent sale que le blanchisseur leur a déposé.

Malgré tout cela le blanchiment d’argent reste une affaire très délicate. Tous les procédés mentionnés précédemment sont connus des autorités et font l’objet d’une surveillance renforcée. Plusieurs dispositifs internationaux ont été mis en place afin de lutter contre ce phénomène. En France, il y a Tracfin (Traitement du renseignement et action contre les circuits financiers clandestins. Les Etats-Unis disposent de l’OFAC (Office of Foreign Assets Control). A Monaco, c’est le SICCFIN (Service d’information et de contrôle des circuits financiers) qui se charge de ces dossiers. La Suisse, enfin, dispose de la CDB (Convention de diligence des banques). Avec l’aide des gouvernements, ces instances sont très compétentes en matière de détection de fraude. En 2013, pas moins de 1,7 milliards d’argent sale ont été saisis par la justice française. N’espérez donc pas planquer vos millions en utilisant une de ces techniques sans risquer de vous faire choper…

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  45. may
    11/07/2015 at 20 h 02 min - Répondre

    Merci pour ton instruction! J’etais inculte en ce qui concerned ce domaine.

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